Study on the Economic Implications of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS)

© Fraunhofer CML

Autonomous ships are coming to stay. This study aims to show the cost structure of an autonomously operated bulk carrier in the baltic sea in comparison to a traditional bulk carrier. Moreover the possible implications on a supply chain using MASS are explored via a sensitivity analysis of inventory costs. This is based on the hypothesis that autonomous ships will facilitate more reliable travel times and higher punctuality compared to manned vessels.

In the study, the authors Julius Küchle, Hannah Pache and Hans-Christoph Burmeister explain the expected cost savings due to MASS on the carrier side as well as the potential value creation in supply chains using these services. Find here the free download of the extended outline of the study.

White Paper "Quantum Computing in Maritime Logistics" published

© Fraunhofer CML

The Fraunhofer CML combines knowledge and experience in maritime logistics, mathematical optimization, and quantum computing, making it the perfect candidate to support businesses in adopting this new technology. Read about new applications in our White Paper!

White Paper "Increasing Maritime Situational Awareness by Augmented Reality Solutions" published

© Fraunhofer CML

The use of augmented reality offers great opportunities to perform maneuvers even more safely and efficiently than before. Read our new white paper to find out what opportunities are opening up and how we support companies in implementing them.

Study on Fleet Management Systems 2021 published

© Fraunhofer CML

In order to adequately meet the challenges nowadays, the use of an efficient ship and fleet management system that is tailored to the company‘s own needs is more important than ever. As in previous years, the range and variety of solutions available on the market for fleet management systems continues to grow, giving interested parties a large number of potential providers as well as products and services to choose from.

Fraunhofer CML conducted this market survey to provide shipping companies with insight and orientation on the solutions available on the market as well as on general market developments. For this reason, this edition of our survey has a separate section dedicated to the Corona pandemic.

With this in mind, let us see the current situation not just as a crisis, but above all as a catalyst for increasing digitization and for the development of innovative, efficient IT solutions.

For more information on the FMS, the excerpt, and the link to order from the Fraunhofer Bookshop, click here.

Latest edition of the "Terminal Operating Systems" study published

© Fraunhofer CML

A series of innovations over the last decade has made terminal operating systems (TOS) around the world more productive, lean and independent. Above all, the extensive data collection of technical and IT systems is now laying the foundation for the use of artificial intelligence. Goal-oriented data analysis enables almost infinite possibilities for gaining specific information and optimizing processes, and the development of AI use is far from complete. But more and more vendors and users of TOS are beginning to realize this enormous potential. They expect AI to open up opportunities for more coordinated and efficient operations, reduced energy consumption and seamless communications.

That's why this year's study on TOS focuses on the implications of AI on how terminals are managed today and in the near future. It provides information about the systems on the market today and presents their respective capabilities in a clear and comparable way. In this way, the study also aims to provide a basis for selection and decision-making processes.

Here you can find more information about the study! 

White Paper "Machine Learning in Maritime Logistics" released

© Fraunhofer CML

Exploiting the value of data with machine learning is increasingly important for gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage in all segments of the maritime industry.

At Fraunhofer CML, we have gained experience from numerous projects that use machine learning to optimize processes and systems in the maritime industry. These insights have been consolidated in the White Paper »Machine Learning in Maritime Logistics«.

Starting from basics of AI and machine learning, the White Paper shows important elements for a successful implementation of machine learning in maritime applications. In order to close the gap between theoretical background and a real-world practical use of data-based methods, actual examples of machine learning in maritime logistics are described. Drawing inspiration from these good practices can facilitate the identification of opportunities on a company level.

Order our newest White Paper here (free download).



White Paper Maintenance Management released

© Fraunhofer CML

A proper technical management and crewing of ships are nowadays of high importance, since expenses for crew as well as for maintenance make up a major part of the operating costs of merchant vessels. A smart integration of maintenance tasks into crew scheduling procedures is a key factor for an effective resource utilization and safe ship operation. Modern ways to improve their interaction based on mathematical optimization are presented in the latest white paper "Maintenance Management. Mathematically Optimized." of Fraunhofer CML.  

White Paper "Ship Operation 4.0" - Navigation aid for the digitalization of ship operation

On board the latest generation of ships, a large amount of data is now collected that maps different functional areas - from the deployment of personnel and cargo to the individual technical components such as propulsion, power supply and auxiliary equipment. As more and more information, measured values and sensor data is collected, the expectations of shipowners, ship managers and the maritime supply industry for an intelligent use of this data increase: Processes should become leaner and more productive, ship operation more efficient, more sustainable and safer. However, it is far less clear today what the necessary prerequisites are for this, with which mechanisms the digitalization of ship operation can create added value and which individual areas of design can be opened up.

Over the past two years, experts from the maritime industry and the scientific community have been working in a group of the Shipbuilding Society e.V. entitled "Ship Operation 4.0" on the question of what value-adding use of digital data could look like in the future in order to increase the profitability of ship operation and further develop ship management functions on board and ashore. The findings obtained are summarised in the form of solution approaches, fields of action and technology trends in the white paper "Ship Operation 4.0" and can serve the maritime industry as a navigation aid for the data-based increase in efficiency of ship operation. The white paper "Ship Operation 4.0" has been published by Fraunhofer-Verlag and can be obtained by interested parties for a nominal fee.


Digitalization of Service in the Maritime Supply Industry


The months of the Corona pandemic have highlighted the benefits and necessity of digitization. Together with the VDMA, we have conducted two studies (in German) to investigate the additional opportunities that digitization offers for service in the maritime supply industry. Both studies can be downloaded free of charge below.

The new VDMA study "Digitalization of Service in the Maritime Supplier Industry" reveals important insights for the future of the maritime industry in Germany. Fraunhofer CML supported the Marine Equipment and Systems AG of the VDMA in conducting the study. Read our press release here. Together with the VDMA, we have investigated the additional opportunities that digitalization offers for service in the maritime supply industry in two studies.

You can download the study Digitalization of Service in the Maritime Supplier Industry here

With a turnover of 12 billion euros in 2014, the maritime supply industry makes a decisive contribution to the industry's value creation. Through customer-focused after-sales service, companies can increase sales and earnings, differentiate themselves from the competition and create long-term customer loyalty.

The results of the study show that after-sales services in the maritime supply industry should be developed further above all to minimize downtimes for customers. High spare parts availability is a decisive criterion for many customers when choosing a supplier. In the view of the CML, this results in a need for innovative service strategies and logistics concepts.

Together with the VDMA, we have conducted two studies to investigate the additional opportunities that digitalization offers for service in the maritime supply industry.

You can download the study on after-sales services here


Study Fleet Management Systems 2018

The latest issue of the study series "Fleet Management Systems" has been published! 

As with every new edition, we have identified new focal points and performance components of the software solutions this year: data integration and condition based maintenance. The study series examined 33 providers in 2011 and 38 providers in 2017/2018. Their confidence in the market is strong. While the estimated market growth for 2016 was expected to be between 5 and 11%, the expectations for 2018 are between 14 and 16%.  

"Fleet Management Systems 2018" is available in English as an EBook and in print at

Bookshop Fraunhofer Verlag

Digitalization of Seaports

© Fraunhofer CML/ Hamburg Port Authority

Fraunhofer CML and the Hamburg Port Authority have jointly published a book on the chances of digitizing seaports. It is available at A brief insight can be found in our brochure.

Terminal Operating Systems 2016

© Fraunhofer CML/ Cover photo: Sergii Figurnyi -

The worldwide market of terminal operating systems is very heterogeneous. It is characterized by many providers, each of them offering various products. The range of functions of each product is quite diverse depending on its scope and purpose. The market survey is supposed to enable terminal operators to select the best product for their terminal. The third issue of this study provides an updated list of companies providing TOS systems including their products and features as well as new insights regarding future developments of software support for terminal operation.

Best Practice in Ship Management

© Germanischer Lloyd SE

In cooperation with GL, Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services CML conducted a study about best practices in ship management. Globally active ship management companies were contacted to contribute their idea of best practice regarding Crewing, Financial Management, Technical Management, Procurement and Quality & Safety in order to make their businesses greener, safer and smarter. To present the results to the interested public and stakeholders, a series of key events will be held around the globe.

The study is available:

Best Practice Ship Management Study 2013